Cover image for Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education
Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education
Publication Information:
Clevedon ; Philadelphia, PA : Multilingual Matters, c1998.
Physical Description:
x, 758 p. : ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 29 cm.


Material Type
Shelf Number
Item Notes
Reference book LC3707.E53 1998 1 .SOURCE. parent fund

On Order



This superbly illustrated Encyclopedia comprises the most comprehensive work yet available on bilingualism. Written in a concise and comprehensive style, it includes: - 117 main topics - 390 textboxes to illustrate the main topics - 228 profiles of languages in all countries of the world - 340 pictures, 35 maps, 98 graphs, 14 diagrams and over half a million words - one of the most up-to-date and extensive bibliographies on bilingualism - over 2,000 references - extensive glossary of 375 terms - plentiful examples and illustrations from around the world New areas and topics e.g. Information Technology and Bilingualism, Bilingualism and the Internet, Bilingualism and the Economy, Bilingual Professions, Religion and Bilingualism, Bilingualism and Tourism, Language Marketing.

Reviews 3

Booklist Review

Language is more than a means of communication. It is tightly bound to culture, politics, and ethnic identity. With increasing migration and globalization, the need to function in more than one language is becoming more important. Bilingual education, the topic of many heated discussions in political and educational circles, is not easy to understand. The authors, bilingual scholars at the School of Education, University of Wales, Bangor, want to "promote the subject of bilingualism in an attractive, comprehensible and comprehensive manner . . . to be academically sound while being accessible to as wide an audience as possible." This encyclopedia has four major sections: "Individual Bilingualism," "Languages in Society," "Languages in Contact in the World," and "Bilingual Education" . Each section contains broad topical articles on subjects such as "Who Is Bilingual?" "Aims of Bilingual Education," and "Multiculturalism in Education." These articles are broken down into shorter sections that cover individual aspects of the subjects, such as immersion in bilingual education, bilingual education for deaf students, and second-language acquisition. Section 3, "Languages in Contact in the World," discusses bilingualism in specific countries. Most articles have short lists of sources for further reading. Graphs, maps, charts, and photographs accompany the articles. Sidebars present extra material such as brief biographies of scholars working in the field, portraits of bilingual families, current educational and linguistic theories, and contemporary events such as the controversy about Ebonics in the Oakland, California, public schools. Cross-references direct users to related articles. A bibliography of more than 2,000 sources and author and subject indexes complete the work. Although much of the material presented here deals with complex theories in the areas of linguistics, psychology, sociology, and education, the authors discuss things like language acquisition, cognition, and social and ethnic identity in terms that are easy for all readers to understand. They also offer a great deal of practical information about the implementation of bilingual and multicultural education. This is an interesting and useful source for academic and large public libraries.

Choice Review

Davis and Jones (Univ. of Wales, Bangor) convincingly demonstrate that great encyclopedists are still with us. Their 118 brief articles (three to five pages), vetted by an international team of scholars, define key terms, describe the work of leading theorists and researchers, cite substantive critical responses, and most importantly, raise more questions than they attempt to answer. The work is a distillation for nonspecialists, who will find it very palatable. Each entry is enhanced by text boxes (e.g., photographs, charts, and biographical sketches of leading scholars like Joshua Fishman) that occasionally overwhelm shorter pieces but on the whole add appeal. Where else can one find a description of a "Welsh Not" stick, worn by hapless students who dared speak their mother tongue in school? The articles are ordered rather arbitrarily within three sections (a fourth is devoted to the linguistic situation in various countries, with accompanying maps), but this is a work meant to be browsed. The tone is informal, even chatty, and the writing style sometimes hackneyed but never dry. Some topics are too condensed: one dealing with foreign and second language teaching summarizes four popular approaches but fails to mention either the natural approach or the communicative approach. The excellent bibliography contains some 2,000 references to Continental and US books and journal articles. This set is a prodigious treatise and although not without minor editorial faults should be in every academic library. C. B. Thurston; University of Texas at San Antonio

Library Journal Review

Just about anything anyone would want to know (and then some) about bilingualism around the world can be found in this 500,000-word encyclopedia. Noting that approximately two-thirds of the world's inhabitants are bilingual, Baker (education, Univ. of Wales) and coauthor Jones attempt to raise awareness about language diversity and help reduce the prejudice and stereotyping that surround language minorities. The encyclopedia is broken into four sections discussing individual bilingualism, languages in society, languages in contact in the world, and bilingual education. Each section offers numerous textboxes, photographs, and graphics. Cross-referencing allows the reader to access other information in the encyclopedia, while "Further Reading" sections at the end of each topic and a bibliography at the end of the encyclopedia lead the reader to information elsewhere. Though the scope is worldwide, interest will be limited owing to its cost and narrow focus. For academic libraries and larger public libraries.ÄTerry A. Christner, Hutchinson P.L., Kansas (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. vi
Prefacep. vii
Acknowledgementsp. viii
Section 1 Individual Bilingualism
Who is a Bilingual?
1 Defining Bilingualismp. 2
2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Bilingualismp. 6
3 Two Views of Bilinguals: Two Halves or One Whole?p. 9
4 Balanced Bilingualsp. 12
5 Double 'Semilingualism'p. 14
6 Prestigious Bilingualismp. 15
7 Multilingualismp. 17
8 Personality, Social Development, Identity and Bilingualismp. 22
Bilingualism and the Family
1 Types of Bilingual Familyp. 28
2 The Development of Bilingualism in Childrenp. 36
3 Bilingualism and Marriagep. 44
4 Mother Tonguep. 47
The Everyday Language Use of Bilinguals
1 Language Choicep. 51
2 Bilingualism and Sensitivity in Communicationp. 54
3 Codeswitchingp. 58
Bilingualism and Thinking
1 Bilingualism and Intelligencep. 62
2 Bilingualism and Creative Thinkingp. 66
3 Field Dependency and Independency and Bilingualismp. 69
4 Piaget and Bilingualismp. 70
5 Bilingualism and Metalinguistic Awarenessp. 71
6 Thresholds Theoryp. 74
7 Common Underlying Proficiency and Separate Underlying Proficiencyp. 81
8 Bilingualism and the Brainp. 83
The Measurement of Bilingualism
1 Measuring Bilingualsp. 86
2 Bilingual Proficiencyp. 90
Section 2 Languages in Society
Bilingualism in Communities
1 Language Communitiesp. 96
2 Types of Language Minorityp. 99
3 Immigration, Emigration and Languagep. 104
4 Ethnic Identityp. 112
5 Diglossiap. 117
6 Languages of Wider Communicationp. 122
Language Change
1 The Origins of Language and Language Familiesp. 127
2 The Origins of Bilingualismp. 133
3 Dialects and Language Boundariesp. 135
4 Pidgins and Creolesp. 142
5 Language Shift, Language Decline and Language Deathp. 150
6 Language Borrowingsp. 164
7 Language Vitalityp. 170
8 Attitudes to Languagesp. 174
Language Maintenance and Planning
1 Language Maintenancep. 181
2 Language Revival and Reversalp. 186
3 Two Cases of Language Revival: Maori and Hebrewp. 195
4 Language Planningp. 203
5 Language Standardizationp. 210
6 Linguistic Purismp. 217
7 Language Marketingp. 221
Bilingualism in the Modern World
1 Information Technology and Bilingualismp. 228
2 Bilingualism and the Internetp. 231
3 Translation and Interpretationp. 234
4 Religion and Bilingualismp. 245
5 Bilingualism and the Economyp. 250
6 Language Strategies for Businessp. 258
7 Bilingual Professionsp. 263
8 Bilingualism and the Mass Mediap. 269
9 Bilingualism and Tourismp. 272
Bilingualism and Language Policies
1 Language as a Problem, a Right, and a Resourcep. 276
2 The Assimilation of Language Minoritiesp. 287
3 Integration and Language Minoritiesp. 296
4 Multiculturalismp. 299
5 Major World Languagesp. 302
6 Hispanics in the United Statesp. 307
7 World Englishesp. 311
8 Language Imperialismp. 319
9 Colonialism and Languagesp. 324
10 Language and Nationalismp. 327
11 Conflict and Equilibriump. 333
12 Language Activismp. 336
13 The Question of Languages in the European Unionp. 339
Section 3 Languages in Contact in the World
Introductionp. 346
Africap. 354
Asiap. 370
Australia and New Zealandp. 385
Caribbeanp. 387
Central Americap. 393
Europep. 398
Middle Eastp. 426
North Americap. 431
Oceaniap. 448
South Americap. 455
Section 4 Bilingual Education
The Aims of Bilingual Education
1 The Nature and Aims of Bilingual Educationp. 464
2 Types of Bilingual Educationp. 469
3 A Bilingual Education Modelp. 473
'Weak' Forms of Bilingual Education
1 Submersion Educationp. 476
2 Transitional Bilingual Educationp. 479
3 Withdrawal Classesp. 483
'Strong' Forms of Bilingual Education
1 Bilingual Nursery Educationp. 486
2 Immersion Bilingual Educationp. 496
3 Language Maintenance Bilingual Educationp. 508
4 Dual Language Schoolsp. 518
5 Dual Majority Language Bilingual Educationp. 525
6 European Schoolsp. 527
7 International Schoolsp. 533
Bilingual Education and the Community
1 Home and School Relationshipsp. 537
2 A Framework for Language Minority Student Empowermentp. 540
Bilingual Education in the United States
1 A Brief History of Bilingual Education in the United Statesp. 545
2 Research on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Educationp. 550
3 The Debate in the United States over Bilingual Educationp. 555
Bilingual Education for Deaf and Hearing Impaired People
1 Deaf and Partially Hearing Bilingual Peoplep. 563
2 Deaf Students and Bilingual Educationp. 567
Bilingual Education for Students with Special Needs
1 Explanations of Under-Achievement in Bilingualsp. 570
2 Bilingualism and Learning Difficultiesp. 572
3 Assessment and Bilingual Childrenp. 575
4 Bilingual Special Educationp. 580
5 Language and Speech Therapy in a Bilingual Contextp. 584
The Bilingual Classroom
1 Language Allocation in Bilingual Methodologyp. 586
2 Bilingual Methodology in Welsh Classroomsp. 592
3 Literacy among Bilingual Studentsp. 596
4 The Development of Biliteracyp. 607
Multiculturalism in Education
1 Multicultural Educationp. 614
2 Visits and Exchanges to Other Countries and Culturesp. 624
3 Language Awareness: Knowledge About Languagep. 628
4 A Critical Awareness of Languagep. 633
Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition
1 An Introduction to Second Language Acquisitionp. 635
2 A Framework of Second Language Acquisitionp. 637
3 Theories of Second Language Acquisition and Learningp. 642
4 Krashen's Monitor Modelp. 649
5 Instrumental and Integrative Motivation and Language Acquisitionp. 651
6 Aptitude and Becoming Bilingualp. 655
7 Age and Becoming Bilingualp. 658
8 Second Language Retentionp. 663
Second Language Learning in Education
1 Ten Dimensions of Classroom Language Learningp. 665
2 Foreign and Second Language Learningp. 667
3 Foreign and Second Language Teaching Approachesp. 670
4 The Communicative Approachp. 674
5 Different Modern Language Teaching Approachesp. 681
6 The Cultural Syllabus and the Multidimensional Language Curriculump. 683
7 Modern Language Learning and Special Educational Needs Studentsp. 685
8 Adult Language Learningp. 688
9 The Ulpan Experience: From Israel to Wales and the Basque Countryp. 693
Glossaryp. 698
Bibliographyp. 708
Photographic Creditsp. 748
Indexp. 751